St.Mary's University

This illustration, created at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), reveals ultrastructural morphology exhibited by coronaviruses.

ከቅድስት ማርያም ዩኒቨርሲቲ የኮሮና ቫይረስ መከላከል ግብረ ሀይል

Updates from St. Mary’s University COVID-19 Prevention Task Force: Extracted from the Ethiopian Ministry of Health Sources

ጥቅምት 04 2013 ዓ.ም. ከጤና ሚኒስቴር ስለ ኢትዮጵያ የኮሮና ቫይረስ ሁኔታ የተገኘ መረጃ፣

  • አጠቃላይ የተደረጉ የላቦራቶሪ ምርመራዎች……………………….. 1,370,095
  • አጠቃላይ የተደረጉ የላቦራቶሪ ምርመራዎች……………………….. 1,370,095
  •  በዕለቱ ቫይረሱ የተገኘባቸው ሰዎች……………………………… 712
  •  በፅኑ ሕሙማን ክፍል የሚገኙ……………………………………. 230
  • ከበሽታው አዲስ ያገገሙ………………………………………….858
  • በአጠቃላይ ያገገሙ ሰዎች………………………………………. 40,165
  • በዕለቱ ከኮሮና ቫይርስ ጋር በተገናኘ ሕይወታቸው ያለፈ …………… 7
  • በአጠቃላይ በሞት የተለዩ…………………………………………1,312
  • እስከዛሬ በቫይረሱ የተያዙ ሰዎች………………………………… 86,430

ከቅድስት ማርያም ዩኒቨርሲቲ የኮሮና ቫይረስ መከላከል ግብረ ሀይል

Updates from St. Mary’s University COVID-19 Prevention Task Force: Extracted from the Ethiopian Ministry of Health Sources

As of 14 October 2020

  • Total Laboratory test conducted……………………… 1,370,095
  • Total Laboratory test conducted……………………… 1,370,095
  • New Confirmed cases ……………….………………… 712
  • Patients in intensive care …………………………………230
  • Newly Recovered……………………………………. 858
  • Total Recovered……………………………………….. 40,165
  • New COVID-19 related death ………………………….7
  • Total Deaths…………………………………………… 1,312
  • Total confirmed cases as of today…………………….. 86,430

Younger Adults Comprise Big Portion of Coronavirus Hospitalizations in U.S.

Pam Belluck – The New York Times – Thursday, March 19, 2020

American adults of all ages — not just those in their 70s, 80s and 90s — are being seriously sickened by the coronavirus, according to a report on nearly 2,500 of the first recorded cases in the United States.

The report, issued Wednesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, found that — as in other countries — the oldest patients had the greatest likelihood of dying and of being hospitalized. But of the 508 patients known to have been hospitalized, 38 percent were notably younger — between 20 and 54. And nearly half of the 121 patients who were admitted to intensive care units were adults under 65, the C.D.C. reported.

“I think everyone should be paying attention to this,” said Stephen S. Morse, a professor of epidemiology at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. “It’s not just going to be the elderly. There will be people age 20 and up. They do have to be careful, even if they think that they’re young and healthy.”

The findings served to underscore an appeal issued Wednesday at a White House briefing by Dr. Deborah Birx, a physician and State Department official who is a leader of the administration’s coronavirus task force. Citing similar reports of young adults in Italy and in France being hospitalized and needing intensive care, Dr. Birx implored the millennial generation to stop socializing in groups and to take care to protect themselves and others.

“You have the potential then to spread it to someone who does have a condition that none of us knew about, and cause them to have a disastrous outcome,” Dr. Birx said, addressing young people.

In the C.D.C. report, 20 percent of the hospitalized patients and 12 percent of the intensive care patients were between the ages of 20 and 44, basically spanning the millennial generation.

“Younger people may feel more confident about their ability to withstand a virus like this,” said Dr. Christopher Carlsten, head of respiratory medicine at the University of British Columbia. But, he said, “if that many younger people are being hospitalized, that means that there are a lot of young people in the community that are walking around with the infection.”

The new data represents a preliminary look at the first significant wave of cases in the United States that does not include people who returned to the country from Wuhan, China, or from Japan, the authors reported. Between Feb. 12 and March 16, there were 4,226 such cases reported to the C.D.C., the study says.

The ages were reported for 2,449 of those patients, the C.D.C. said, and of those, 6 percent were 85 and older, and 25 percent were between 65 and 84. Twenty-nine percent were aged 20 to 44.

The age groups of 55 to 64 and 45 to 54 each included 18 percent of the total. Only 5 percent of cases were diagnosed in people 19 and younger.

The risk of a patient requiring hospitalization or dying of the infection caused by the coronavirus increased with age, as has been the pattern in other countries.

The report included no information about whether patients of any age had underlying risk factors, such as a chronic illness or a compromised immune system. So, it is impossible to determine whether the younger patients who were hospitalized were more susceptible to serious infection than most others in their age group.

But experts said that even if younger people in the report were medical outliers, the fact that they were taking up hospital beds and space in intensive care units was significant.

And these more serious cases represent the leading edge of how the pandemic is rapidly unfolding in the United States, showing that adults of all ages are susceptible and should be concerned about protecting their own health, and not transmitting the virus to others.

The youngest age group, people 19 and under, accounted for less than 1 percent of the hospitalizations, and none of the I.C.U. admissions or deaths. This dovetails with data from other countries so far. This week, however, the largest study to date of pediatric cases in China found that a small segment of very young children may need hospitalization for very serious symptoms, and that one 14-year-old boy in China died from the virus.

Of the 44 people whose deaths were recorded in the report, 15 were age 85 or older and 20 were between the ages of 65 to 84. There were nine deaths among adults age 20 to 64, the report said.

Some of the patients in the study are still sick, the authors noted, so the results of their cases are unclear. Data was missing for a number of the cases, “which likely resulted in an underestimation of the outcomes,” the authors wrote. Because of the missing data, the authors presented percentages of hospitalizations, I.C.U. admissions and deaths as a range. The report also says that the limited testing available in the United States so far makes this report only an early snapshot of the crisis.

Still, the authors wrote, “these preliminary data also demonstrate that severe illness leading to hospitalization, including I.C.U. admission and death, can occur in adults of any age with Covid-19.”



St. Mary’s University Updates on COVID-19 Taken from WHO

These materials are regularly updated based on new scientific findings as the epidemic evolves. Last updated 18 March 2020

Basic protective measures against the new coronavirus

Stay aware of the latest information on the COVID-19 outbreak, available on the WHO website and through your national and local public health authority. Most people who become infected experience mild illness and recover, but it can be more severe for others. Take care of your health and protect others by doing the following:

Wash your hands frequently

Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water.

Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub kills viruses that may be on your hands.

Maintain social distancing

Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing.

Why? When someone coughs or sneezes they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if the person coughing has the disease.

Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth

Why? Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose or mouth. From there, the virus can enter your body and can make you sick.

Practice respiratory hygiene

Make sure you, and the people around you, follow good respiratory hygiene. This means covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately.

Why? Droplets spread virus. By following good respiratory hygiene you protect the people around you from viruses such as cold, flu and COVID-19.

If you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical care early

Stay home if you feel unwell. If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention and call in advance. Follow the directions of your local health authority.

Why? National and local authorities will have the most up to date information on the situation in your area. Calling in advance will allow your health care provider to quickly direct you to the right health facility. This will also protect you and help prevent spread of viruses and other infections.

Stay informed and follow advice given by your healthcare provider

Stay informed on the latest developments about COVID-19. Follow advice given by your healthcare provider, your national and local public health authority or your employer on how to protect yourself and others from COVID-19.

Why? National and local authorities will have the most up to date information on whether COVID-19 is spreading in your area. They are best placed to advise on what people in your area should be doing to protect themselves.

St. Mary’s University Updates on COVID-19 Taken from the European CDC

Necessary measures to mitigate the impact of the pandemic

Given the current epidemiology and risk assessment, and the expected developments in the next days to few weeks, the following public health measures to mitigate the impact of the pandemic are necessary in EU/EEA countries:

Social distancing measures should be implemented early in order to mitigate the impact of the epidemic and to delay the epidemic peak. This can interrupt human-to-human transmission chains, prevent further spread, reduce the intensity of the epidemic and slow down the increase in cases, while allowing healthcare systems to prepare and cope with an increased influx of patients. Such measures should include:

the immediate isolation of symptomatic persons suspected or confirmed to be infected with COVID-19;

the suspension of mass gatherings, taking into consideration the size of the event, the density of participants and if the event is in a confined indoor environment;

social distancing measures at workplaces (for example teleworking, suspension of meetings, cancellation of non-essential travel);

measures in and closure of schools, taking into consideration the uncertainty in the evidence of children in transmitting the disease, need for day care for children, impact on nursing staff, potential to increase transmission to vulnerable grandparents;

cordon sanitaire of residential areas with high levels of community transmission.

Ensuring the public is aware of the seriousness of COVID-19. A high degree of population understanding, solidarity and discipline is required to apply strict personal hygiene, coughing etiquette, self-monitoring and social distancing measures. Community engagement and acceptance of stringent social distancing measures put in place are key in delaying and reducing further spread.

Prevention and control of COVID-19 in hospitals and long-term care facilities is an immediate priority in order to: (1) slow the demand for specialised healthcare, such as ICU beds; (2) safeguard populations vulnerable to severe outcomes of infection (3); protect healthcare workers that provide care; (4) minimise the export of cases to other healthcare facilities and the community.

Every healthcare facility should initiate training for all staff and those who may be required for healthcare provision during surge capacity. Countries should identify healthcare units that can be designated to care for COVID-19 cases, to minimise transmission to non-cases and to conserve PPE. Countries and healthcare institutions should identify additional facilities that can be used for the cohorting of cases with mild symptoms, in the event that surge capacity is exceeded by healthcare facilities. The highest priority for use of respirators (FFP2/3) are healthcare workers, in particular those performing aerosol-generating procedures, including swabbing.

If resources or capacity are limited, rational approaches should be implemented to prioritise high-yield actions, which include: rational use of confirmatory testing, reducing contact tracing to focus only on high-yield contacts, rational use of PPE and hospitalisation and implementing rational criteria for de-isolation. Testing approaches should prioritise vulnerable populations, protection of social and healthcare institutions, including staff.

National surveillance systems should initially aim at rapidly detecting cases and assessing community transmission. As the epidemic progresses, surveillance should monitor the intensity, geographical spread and the impact of the epidemic on the population and healthcare systems and assess the effectiveness of measures in place. In circumstances with capacity shortages and strict implementation of social distancing measures, surveillance should focus on severe acute respiratory infections, sentinel surveillance in outpatient clinics or collection of data through telephone helplines.

A strategic approach based on early and rigorous application of these measures will help reduce the burden and pressure on the healthcare system, and in particular on hospitals, and will allow more time for the testing of therapeutics and vaccine development.

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